[This history was prepared at the request of the Dean of the School of Business at Wichita State University in December 2000 and January 2001. It is a history written for the institution, and as such isnít the type of critical scholarship that Dwight Murphey applies to other subjects. It is, nevertheless, an interesting compendium. The reason it is under "unpublished works" is that the dean never followed up on his commitment, first, to publish it and then, later, to publish it on the School's Web page. No criticism was ever made of it, but it would seem that there is something about it that wasn't welcomed.]
A History of the W. Frank Barton School of Business:
The First Seventy-Five Years
Dwight D. Murphey
There are two old photographs in the archives of Wichita State University that, if you look at them more than casually and are attentive to what they show about the people who are pictured, evoke an unusual combination of emotions: admiration and nostalgia, certainly; but also pathos.
Because the people shown, undaunted in their obvious determination to build the edifices of high civilization from the barest beginnings in a Kansas wheat field, are as close as people can come to the spirit of "the Little Train that Could."
The first photo shows bleachers set up in what is for the most part an empty farm field almost a century ago. The men and women sitting in the bleachers and being addressed by Fairmount College president Nathan Morrison are dressed incongruously from today's point of view: they are in their "Sunday's finest" - coats, high collars and ties, ankle-length dresses, and hats that we would associate with formal attire - as though they had just come from church (which perhaps they had), even though they are there in the middle of nowhere. (This was the style of the day, as anyone knows who has seen pictures from that era showing couples playing tennis with exactly that type of dress clothing on, or who has gone through the Hinsdale County museum in Lake City, Colorado, and seen pictures of silver miners standing in front of mules and wearing brimmed hats, coats and ties.) The bleachers in the Wichita photograph had been built in front of an imposing Queen Anne-style building, the front of which occupies the right portion of the picture, similar to what might be found at New England liberal arts colleges. The building itself, of course, was yet another incongruous feature in so rural a setting. It was Fiske Hall at its dedication on June 10, 1906.
The other photo was taken in 1907 at the groundbreaking for the Carnegie/Morrison Library. Here, a group of people similarly dressed stand among knee-high weeds. A line of scrub-trees, probably the type of hedge-apple trees that form so many treelines in and around Wichita today and that many of us have thought were introduced initially by the WPA in the 1930s to break the Kansas wind and help against the dust-bowl, stands on the horizon several hundred yards away. Howard Darling, a pioneer lumberman and president of the Fairmount College Board of Trustees, poses in front of the group holding a shovel-full of dirt that marks the beginning of the construction.
These photographs capture what this history will show to have been the essence of the history of the University - and, more to the point of this account, of the later-established College of Business (now known as the W. Frank Barton School of Business). The pictures show bare beginnings, a starting from nothing. At the same time, they show people who "stand tall" with pride, dignity, aspiration, and a self-starter achiever mentality. The founders of the school had picked what was reputed to be the highest point in Sedgwick County, still some distance from the outer boundaries of the city of Wichita which wouldn't surround it until after World War II. The area had several years earlier come to be called "Fairmount" because of the location.
The founders were determined to create something solid and enduring, something worthy of themselves and that would tie their community to their roots in the already long-settled civilization of the eastern United States.
The history told here will speak for itself, so it isn't necessary to introduce it with many such high-sounding generalizations. There is some perspective to add, however. Few people have had occasion to review the 106-year history of the University or what has now become the 75-year history of the College of Business (which will be the subject of this essay). That means they stand pretty much where anyone stands before making such a study: mentally framed by the impressions of the current institution, with those enhanced by whatever memories each may bring from his own association with the University over a period of time. But immersement in the history gives a different perspective. We see how forward-looking those interested in the University and the College have been, and how quickly those institutions have grown from the very smallest beginnings. It is also worth noting how they have never lagged behind what we would today call the "cutting edge," other than perhaps through the small size of their relative development at any given time.
In 1977 Professor Fran Jabara, by then a former dean of the college, established the "Center for Entrepreneurship" to honor and instruct the "self-starter" in business. This was certainly fitting, because it has been entrepreneurship, as shown in the two photographs from the early years, that has most marked the history we are about to review.
Prologue: Events Before the College was Created in 1926
The officially-recognized beginning year for what is now Wichita State University is given as 1895, when college-level classes were begun at Fairmount College. (It wasn't until the spring of 1896 that Fairmount College was officially created by an amendment to the charter with the Kansas Secretary of State.) But there is a history that precedes even that.
The earliest start was in 1886 when Rev. Joseph Homer Parker, minister of Wichita's Plymouth Congregational Church, organized the Wichita Ladies' College. Construction started in 1887, the same year the name was changed to "Fairmount Ladies' College"; but the recession in 1888 put a crimp in the building effort, so the first building - Fairmount Hall - wasn't completed until 1892. At that time, the ladies' college became a college preparatory school called the Fairmount Institute, and this was housed in the Hall.
Another change occurred just three years later in 1895 when Fairmount College began classes for both male and female students. The first advertisement for Fairmount College appeared in the Wichita Beacon on August 27, 1895, and told of the College's having departments of Business and Fine Arts. The first instructor of business, although in the preparatory-school portion that continued under the Fairmount College umbrella for several years, was Earnest W. Kramer. He was still an undergraduate in the College itself, and taught bookkeeping and penmanship. He taught until his own graduation from Fairmount College in 1899. After he left, Kramer went on eventually to become a senior officer with the Northwestern Railroad in Chicago. (Railroads were the big employers for many of the College's early graduates.) Myron D. E. Boyle stepped in as the Business Education instructor.
By 1899, the College required seniors to take three quarters of Political Economy (notice that it was then on the quarter system). At the end of the century, however, Political Economy was rapidly giving way to the newly-forming "social science" disciplines, which are the ones we know today, which separated Economics and Political Science. Staying, as we notice, on "the cutting edge," Fairmount College first offered Economics as such in 1903. It was taught by William H. Isely, who in characteristic fashion for the College in its rudimentary stages filled out the organization chart by holding a variety of posts that included Dean of Normal Training and Professor of History and Political Science. His teaching covered a vast range: history, political science, political economy, and physics. In fact, he served as de facto acting president during President Morrison's many extended fundraising trips to the East coast. His protean role illustrates something that was common to the institution's existence, most especially in the first half-century: positions existed almost like those in a "shadow cabinet," pointing toward future substance but barely having people to occupy them. (Even today, the Barton School has a single Real Estate professor, with aspirations to build from there. This is a time-honored pattern in the life of a developing institution.)
The Sunflower in 1926 said the college-preparatory unit under Fairmount College was disbanded in 1913. (In his retrospective written for the hundredth anniversary, George Platt says 1918, but the difference is one of semantics: enrollment in the program was stopped in 1913 and the last class graduated in June 1918.) By the end of World War I, the public high schools had eliminated the need for such academies. Thus, another observation: at all times the process of development has included, along with the growth, a good deal of what the economist Joseph Schumpeter called "creative destruction." Many initiatives have been started only to be sloughed off later. To understand this process, a fitting comparison would be to the stock market during a rising "bull market." The market's ascent consists not of a continuous rise but of two or three days of growth followed by one day of falling back.
What would prove to be a milestone in the history of the College of Business (although at that time the College still didn't exist) occurred in 1920 when Frank A. Neff joined the faculty. As we will see, he went on to serve the longest tenure thus far as dean of the College, from its creation in 1926 until 1950.
Significantly, a Department of Business Administration existed in 1925, a year before the College itself was created. Even though we mark 1926 as the beginning of the College's 75-year history, it appears that business had at all times been a meaningful part of the curriculum.
Formation of the Municipal University of Wichita and of the "College of Business and Industry" in 1926
It must be written on a tablet somewhere (probably in the handwriting of C. Northcote Parkinson, the author of "Parkinson's Law") that institutions always perceive a need for more money, especially if they are growing, since their resources never meet their aspirations. It was precisely that situation that led the Fairmount College trustees to seek to have the City of Wichita adopt the college as a municipal university in 1925. The voters turned it down in a referendum that year, but the vote in 1926 was overwhelmingly favorable, perhaps because it was known that Fairmount might otherwise merge with Washburn and move to Topeka. Thus was born on April 30, 1926, The Municipal University of Wichita, which at its inception had 548 students. We will refer to it, however, just as W.U., since that's what most people think of. (Given one possible pronunciation of the acronym "MUW," it is surprising that a Wheatshocker, and not a cow, has been the mascot.)
The organization chart was like a cornucopia of future promise: a College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, a College of Education, a College of Fine Arts, a Summer School, and an Extension Division - together with a College of Business Administration and Industry. Classes were held in Fairmount, and Fiske Hall at that time was a dormitory. The buildings were rounded out by the Carnegie/Morrison Library and by the brand-new Henrion Gymnasium, built in the same year the University came into being. The president of Fairmount College since 1922, John D. Finlayson, became president of the University of Wichita and remained until 1927.
Never mind, so far as the newly created College of Business Administration and Industry was concern, that there was hardly anyone to "man the store." The new dean, Frank A. Neff, had just one faculty member under him at the start, James Maurer, who taught business and mathematics. When Fran Jabara was interviewed about this history in early 2001, he speculated that the reason for such pretensions was that the institution, now officially a university, needed to look like one. To be a "university," there had to be constituent colleges, even if they were largely "on paper."
Empty-shell or not, it is meaningful that the University of Wichita included a college of business. It illustrates once again a desire to be on the leading edge. There had been no such thing as a "college of business" in the whole of the United States until the University of Pennsylvania established the Wharton School of Finance in 1881. There were only 12 of them in 1910, and just 100 by 1929. This had grown to 200 by 1966. When the W.U. "College of Business Administration and Industry" came into being in 1926, it was one of the first 100.
The college of business started in a way that is virtually unknown even among long-term faculty members as the college celebrates its 75th birthday. It was entirely a "co-operative school." All 41 of its students took part in a curriculum of co-operative education patterned after the program that had been developed at the University of Cincinnati. Students were paired so that each pair could occupy one job at a place of employment in the city. One student would work at the job for four months while the other attended classes, and then they would switch for the next four months, and so on. (The Sunflower article written about it at the time didn't make it clear what happened with the 41st student, who obviously didn't have anybody with whom to pair.) The combination of employment and education remains important to the college today, operating through the co-operative education program that was reestablished in 1979, although today it is just an important supplement to an ordinary curriculum. Now, in the school year 2000-1, there are 154 business students matched with 120 employers, combining work with an academic study of the job itself. It is interesting that by the time Fran Jabara joined the faculty in 1949 the initial Cincinnati plan had been dropped for so long that he wasn't even aware it had existed.
Even from the very beginning of the University of Wichita the student body was mainly "non-traditional," mixing jobs (and often family) with going to school. In the classroom it is sometimes felt that this detracts from students' focus on education, but that is nothing new: the Sunflower back in those early days editorialized about how little attention the newly-incoming students paid to their education - and about how poorly the city's schools had prepared them in such matters as spelling. That the same complaints should continue for so long is surprising. Another little-known fact is that the college of business was for several years the home, also, of the various engineering programs of the University. Starting in 1927, Chemical, Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, Industrial and Mining Engineering were offered as a separate part of the college under the direction of Roy W. Elliott. Aeronautical Engineering was added in 1928. All of this was reflected in the "and Industry" part of the college's title.
The Interim Years Before Entry into the State System
The college still had only five full-time faculty members in 1936, ten years after it started. What made possible the profusion of programs was a generous use of adjunct faculty from the business and professional communities. In 1930, Architectural Engineering, Surveying, and Secretarial Science (under Professor Ricketts) were added. That same year, Accounting first appeared, taught by S. W. Wright. Subjects were mixed in what now seems odd ways: chemistry was combined with business administration, as was journalism. In 1932, Accounting and Finance were linked together, and Production with Marketing. (Looking ahead to 1950, we see Pilot Training combined with Physics and Astronomy.) This probably reflects, more than anything, a lack of separate specialists and of adequate numbers of both faculty and students to arrive at the "critical mass" needed for the offering of subjects separately.
The "two-steps-forward, one back" progression is well illustrated by the dropping of Accounting (and of Aeronautical Engineering) in 1935. Accounting was resumed in 1946 as the University blossomed under the return of the G.I.'s from World War II. Wichita State University now, of course, has a School of Accountancy and is a leader in Aeronautical Engineering with its National Institute for Aviation Research. Other programs, too, were dropped, some to be resumed later, although most of these seem to have been in engineering.
William Crum, whom Fran Jabara describes as one of the pillars upon which the modern college was founded, was the one who got Accounting underway again in 1946. He was soon joined by Malcolm Black, a practicing attorney who taught taxation.
We may wonder what the situation was regarding faculty and students during those interim years before the University entered the state system. Neff Hall had not yet been built, and the college was housed on the south end of the third floor of Jardine Hall. When Jabara became an assistant professor in 1949, six faculty members were crowded together in one small office, which had just enough room for one chair for a student to sit in while talking with a professor. The college had a strong teaching emphasis, with little stress on research. Jabara taught 15 hours. During the 1950s, the University of Wichita was a small school with high tuition relative to the state universities, so that (as we have seen) students mostly worked while going to school. The beginning faculty salary was $3,200 for the nine-month academic year, and there was a $100 raise after the first year. Promotion for faculty was a little faster than it usually is now: Jabara was an assistant professor for five years and then an associate professor for five more before becoming a full professor.
After a quarter of a century as dean, Frank Neff stepped down in 1950, having acquired the affectionate nickname of "Pop Neff." He left the office to Kenneth Razak, who was on the engineering side of the college. Razak served for three years until 1953, and remained the dean of Engineering after that was split off into a separate college. (The record shows that this separation occurred in 1955, which leaves 1954 unaccounted for so far as Razak's official position was concerned; but that can be puzzled over by the historian of the College of Engineering.)
Neff Hall was the University's first permanent post-war building, and the College moved into it in January 1951. It has from the beginning been named after Frank Neff. Fran Jabara looks back with some fascination at the fact that two German scientists, brought to this country at the conclusion of World War II, were housed in the College of Engineering, and had offices in Neff Hall.
Neff Hall was a brick building in the "international style" that was different from, but fit in so well with, the New England "Georgian" style of the semi-circle of buildings that formed the early campus and the "Queen Anne" style of Fiske Hall. (Devlin Hall - which also fits in nicely - was finished in 1988 to house the Entrepreneurship program and is said to be a "postmodernist" building. Nothing in the record indicates what sort of architecture Clinton Hall represents, but since it is streamlined, imposing and attractive, despite the nickname it once attracted as "an aircraft carrier," it should hardly for that reason be deemed the "mutt" among the "thoroughbreds.")
Kenneth Razak's three-year tenure as dean gave way to William Nielander's four-year tenure in 1953. Graduate education began to come into the picture, with masters both in Business Administration and Business Education. As we have noted, Engineering was split off to become a separate college in 1955. Just the same, the "and Industry" remained in the title of the "College of Business Administration and Industry" until those two words were dropped in 1967.
A major development under Nielander was his formation of the college chapter of Alpha Kappa Psi, the oldest national business fraternity. The Barton School has a large number of student organizations now which will be described in an Appendix, but for several years during the 1960s and 1970s, until there was a proliferation of student groups representing different majors and student interests, Alpha Kappa Psi was the center of student and college life. It was the host for the annual spring banquet during those years, and its activities with the business community brought the students and faculty into constant contact with business personalities. In the late 1960s, the fraternity purchased two run-down houses on Holyoke Street south of the campus and turned them into a combination of fraternity and rooming houses. Enthusiasm for this venture waxed high for several years, and fraternity meetings were held there, but eventually new cohorts of students lost interest. The faculty advisers, Bert Segler and Dwight Murphey, became alarmed at one point about the degree of fraternal interest in a nubile little maiden of tender years who lived in one of the houses. Those were the hippy years. But we should return to the chronology.
Jack D. Heysinger began a seven-year stint as dean in 1957. His 1962 application to the AACSB (the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business) for accreditation by it is voluminous, as such documents are wont to be, and provides an excellent "window" into what the College was like in 1962, just two years before the University entered the state system and thereby moved to a whole new plateau. Here are some of the things that occurred in that year or that reflect the condition of the College:
The College's "objectives" (they had them in those days, too, even before the "vision statement" mania) voiced a desire to de-emphasize "present business practice and procedure" so that a more general background (and a stress on each student's personal abilities) could be provided, although this didn't rule out some education specializing in selected areas. Even though 1962 was 39 years ago, these objectives were very much in line with the theme voiced in business literature at the end of the century to the effect that, since future "careers" will probably entail frequent mobility among companies and tasks, students should obtain a good overall background and combine that with aptitudes in speaking, writing, computer technology, and leadership rather than to pick out something narrow to attach themselves to.
The departments of the College consisted of Accounting, Administration, Economics and Secretarial Training; and there was a chairman of graduate studies in business.
Major policies were set by a forerunner of the current "executive committee." This involved the dean, the department heads, the graduate chairman (as the position was called in those pre-feminist days), and the full professors. The full professors also constituted a permanent Promotion and Tenure Committee. Accordingly, the role of full professors was substantially greater than it is today.
There seems to have been no sign of the grade inflation that has beset university life throughout the United States for perhaps the past thirty years. The numbers of A's in classes ranged, depending upon subject, from 3.37 to 11.43 percent; B's from 16.42 to 34.29 percent; and C's from 23.35 to 42.50 percent.
In a passage that may well be unique for its candor, the application for accreditation tells about the University's status and how difficult it was to obtain top faculty: "The institution's relative lack of national status restricts interest on the part of potential faculty, particularly older, experienced people." It went on to say that "the faculty is relatively young and therefore lacks experience. The number of individuals who are, or have been, completing terminal degrees has kept research productivity relatively low." This is supported by the fact that there were only three faculty members in the College who had been at the University for 15 years or more; most of those teaching were junior faculty.
Salaries at that time ranged from $5,600 to $8,000 for assistant professors, $7,700 to $11,000 for associate professors, and $9,000 to $11,000 for full professors. (It would appear that the full professors were experiencing the same "salary compression" compared to more junior faculty that became a serious problem later until President Donald Beggs introduced the periodic "professors' incentive review" program in 2000.)
The "Center for Business Management Services" was established, offering seminars and training programs. This center published a Business Journal six times a year, and this went to alumni and local businesses until it was replaced by the college's Newsletter in 1972. The Business Journal carried news about the college, and also included articles on assorted business subjects.
A "Business Placement Bureau" existed to help find jobs for graduates. (This was followed up later by Dean Fran Jabara when he encouraged Alpha Kappa Psi to publish an annual placement book featuring biographical information about, and photographs of, the college's graduating seniors.)
The "Neff Memorial Awards" were started in that year, 1962. William T. Carnahan was named the "Outstanding Junior." It wasn't until the next year that both Outstanding Junior and Outstanding Senior awards were given. Carnahan won for the second year in a row, taking the first Outstanding Senior award.
William Crum left as head of the Accounting Department, and Fran Jabara became department chairman, serving under Dean Heysinger. Two years later, as we shall see, Jabara was named dean.
This 1962 application to AACSB wasn't successful in obtaining the accreditation. That was gotten five years later, as we shall see.
Entry into the State System: Wichita State University
Once again, expansion had brought on a financial squeeze. The city university found that it could no longer expand without the disadvantage of charging higher tuition than the state universities. A campaign to enter the state system began in 1955, but the struggle was a bitter one, with the state Board of Regents in opposition. Thanks almost entirely to a Herculean effort by W.U. president Harry Corbin, the state Legislature finally approved the move in 1963. Wichita State University came into being officially on July 1, 1964.
Some people had wanted the University to become "The University of Kansas, Wichita Campus," but WSU succeeded instead in becoming an autonomous university within the Regents system. The differences of opinion led to two restrictions that were placed on WSU at least temporarily, and that are pertinent to our story. One was a condition (of indefinite duration) that there be no new buildings. The other barred setting up doctoral programs unless they were offered cooperatively with K.U., with the degree being from K.U.
Jack Heysinger was a candidate for president of the new state university, and left to become the dean of the college of business at the University of Missouri at Kansas City when Emory Lindquist was selected. (Harry Corbin had reputedly spent so much political capital on the fight for admission that he resigned when his goal was realized, believing that the University would fare better with the Regents, who had opposed admission, if there were a new face.) Fran Jabara was asked to serve as dean, and under his tenure the college of business entered upon a frenetic period of expansion.
Years of Growth: The Deanship of Fran Jabara
There were 20 faculty members (18 full-time) when Jabara became dean in 1964. This tripled to over 60 by the time he left the deanship in 1971. At the same time, the incoming faculty members brought higher credentials. Only six of the faculty had doctorates in 1964, whereas there were 30 by 1969. This expansion and improvement of faculty wasn't easy: in 1964, faculty salaries were allocated at $7,000 per position, which meant that Jabara had to combine positions to produce high enough salaries to attract the new people. His wife Geri played a major role in the life of the college, and among other things was active in recruiting.
Faculty credentials were improved, and there was concommitantly with that a move toward a faculty that was more oriented toward the established disciplines and that had a higher research-and-publication expectation. This emphasis may have resulted in part from the influence of President Clark Ahlberg after he assumed office in 1968, but Fran Jabara is more inclined to ascribe it to the impact of AACSB accreditation. With the increased research emphasis, the de facto faculty teaching load per semester was nine hours. Full-time faculty became the norm, with fewer part-time instructors from the business and professional communities.
The student body grew to match. There was a 60 percent increase in students in just five years. Between 1964 and 1970, the number of graduate students increased by 175 percent. Seven master's degrees were awarded in 1965, but 64 in 1969. As a result, WSU's college of business became the largest business school in Kansas. (In a way, it is strange that the others weren't maintaining their relative position, since business education was blossoming all over the country. Only 3.2 percent of American college degrees were in business in 1920; by 1965, this had multiplied almost by five to 15 percent; and it was still growing.) Freshmen entering the University didn't go directly into the college of business, but transferred in only after reaching their sophomore year.
No distinction was made (just as there isn't today) between the night and day programs. There was a full array of courses at both times, and they were staffed by regular faculty.
In 1967, the "and Industry" was dropped from the college's name. The "College of Business Administration" had lost its last remnant of its earlier connection with engineering.
Faculty and student-body enlargement was accompanied by a growing profusion of activity, which we would have to consider a major theme in the history of the past 37 years. This has by 2001 become very extensive through, among other things, a variety of centers and student groups. The Center for Management Development (CMD) was established in 1968, taking the place of the Center for Business Management Services that had been set up in 1962. During the late '60s, the 1970s and much of the '80s, several faculty were active instructors in the "Graduate Realtors' Institute" offered in about 25 cities across Kansas, since the CMD under Fred Soper's leadership had a strong working relationship with the Kansas Association of Realtors. That was dropped eventually when the K.A.R. decided to hire full-time, in-house instructors to travel the state.
A major achievement was the successful push for AACSB accreditation in 1967-8, arguably the crowning achievement of the Jabara years (although there are other candidates for that honor). This provided WSU's college of business with recognition by, and membership in, the country's highest business accrediting agency, putting the college in elite company.
The college's core curriculum was revamped completely in 1969-70 to adjust it to the AACSB. The gestation was a wrenching experience for the faculty, whose members couldn't agree on a core. At one of the faculty meetings to discuss it, Curtise Wood, one of the college's more colorful and beloved personalities, shouted "I don't give a (expletive deleted)!" and stormed out of the room. The impasse was resolved when the faculty voted to entrust the entire matter to a select committee, whose decision, they agreed, would be final. Fran Jabara says he wasn't much involved in this, since his associate dean, Donald Christenson, handled most internal matters.
A proposal was immediately made to have a Ph.D program. Jabara's recollection is somewhat hazy about the outcome, but he believes a cooperative program leading to a doctorate from K.U. was put into operation, with at least one graduate. He believes that one of the conditions for entry into the state system was that there be no independent Ph.D programs. Even in 2001 at the time of the 75th anniversary, the college does not offer a doctoral degree.
To obtain accreditation, it was necessary to hire faculty with doctorates. As part of that effort, Jabara hired four Communications faculty who had earned their degrees at Michigan State University. They were a fiery bunch, led most particularly by James Campbell and Dan Costley. The late 1960s and early '70s were ideologically-charged years anyway throughout the United States, but it seemed for a time that "behavioral science" was about to become a prevailing ideological orthodoxy within the college and maybe for universities in general. Perhaps the most famous - or infamous, depending upon ones perception - course in the college's history was the "Artificial Society" class, with its "parameter-free simulation," one format of which had students forming companies that competed with each other. Anyone on the faculty during those years recalls the intense frustrations of students, who complained to all who would listen about the looseness of the whole operation. A student could even buy "points" from other students to earn a grade. Campbell, a large-bodied man with a vigorous personality, soon left the University, though, as did the other members of the Communications group. He went on to quite an eccentric activity: the selling of doctoral diplomas in England and New York. He wound up at the University of Alabama for a time, but died young.
While Campbell was still at WSU, Campbell and Costley (who was the department chairman of the Department of Administration) were the key figures in organizing a "faculty slowdown" that would protest large class sizes by allowing students to enroll in only a fraction of the hours they had enrolled in the previous semester. (Jabara recalls it as a protest for higher salaries, but the author of this history was very much involved as the one faculty member who voted against it; and his recollection is that it was related to class size.) The slowdown came to an abrupt halt when President Ahlberg called the faculty of the department over to the board room in Morrison Hall for a serious dressing-down.
The students were also involved in this protest - in opposition to the faculty embargo on enrollments. The Alpha Kappa Psi chapter, headed by Lynn Matthews as president, put on a dinner on a Sunday night at which they presented an award and gift to Dean Jabara. He still has the gift - a handsome clock and thermometer combination -- behind his desk in 2001. At eight o'clock the next morning, though, Matthews and 30 to 40 other members of Alpha Kappa Psi crowded into Jabara's small dean's office in the center of the first floor of Neff Hall to voice their opposition to students' not being allowed to enroll in classes they needed for graduation. Jabara didn't take offense, since he "knew they were right." Jabara knew he was working hard toward having a new building constructed to house the college, and that would address the concerns that led to both the faculty and the student protests.
These confrontations might not have occurred outside the spirit of those times, which on many campuses was revolutionary as the anti-war, Civil Rights and countercultural movements merged. At WSU, students without shirts and shoes lay around in the hallways of the Campus Activities Center. A lighter note was added by "streakers" who on at least one occasion tore nude through the college (after it was in Clinton Hall) and out across the quadrangle in front of the student union. Nevertheless, Jabara says the angry rhetoric never really touched him as dean. He surmises that the reason was that the students in the college of business, being mainly people who were working for a living and often had families to support, just weren't into the "student movement" of the day.
As all this went on, Jabara was working to obtain a new building to house the expanded college. (The college of business had grown so much that it taught one-third of WSU's total credit hours at that time.) Remember that one of the conditions for entering the state system was that there would, for an undefined future, be no new buildings. To get around this, Jabara proposed a large "addition" to Neff Hall. "That's why Clinton Hall is located where it is, even though there were people who thought it would fit better somewhere else," Jabara says. There was supposed to be a connecting hallway between Neff Hall and the new "wing," but the Board of Regents later relented and allowed the new building without it. (The connector would have been a nice feature, especially on rainy days; but money was tight, which made it a casualty.)
The result was a $1.2 million building, paid for out of state funds. It was named the "R. P. Clinton Hall" in appreciation for the $325,000 gift that oilman R. P. Clinton made to the college to endow the Clinton Chair in Management. The college moved into the new building in the spring of 1970, with the formal dedication in April.
The construction job was let out for bids and awarded, as expected, to the low bidder. That contractor, though, wasn't able to "make bond" (i.e., post the "payment and performance bond" that is required on public projects). The contract then passed to the second-lowest bidder, which really hadn't expected to get the job and which became financially strapped in performing it. Jabara isn't aware of structural problems having crept in because of that difficulty, but there was for many years a serious problem with the roof. Several faculty members were in effect dispossessed from their offices for long periods of time because of water dripping down onto their desks and book cases, all of which had to be covered with plastic sheets. A number of professors began doing their writing at home on computers, a move contributed to about equally by the water problem and the convenience of home computers.
There was some feeling on campus that the college of business shouldn't be allowed use of the entire building as its alone. This led to the Psychology Department's having had its rat laboratories in the basement for the first few years.
Clinton Hall had been occupied for only a few months when tragedy struck both the University and the College. One of the two airplanes flying the football team to Provo, Utah, for a game became caught in a box canyon and crashed into a mountainside near Georgetown, Colorado, on October 2, 1970. The trauma was intense for the entire city of Wichita. Two college of business students who were on the football team were killed in the crash: Randall B. Kiesaw and Thomas B. Owen, Jr. One alumnus of the college, John W. Grooms, was also killed. All three are memorialized on a plaque that for several years has been prominently displayed in the lobby of Clinton Hall.
Of much less importance, although nonetheless an interesting footnote, is that one of the local radio stations first announced that Dwight Murphey, the author of this history, was among the dead. He was in the Bar Association Library at the time and was told by the librarian that his death was being reported. That was soon corrected when it was found that the orthopedic surgeon Duane Murphy was among the passengers, but had been on the other plane and wasn't killed.
Several things happened in 1971. The college began sponsoring the annual conference about ad valorem taxation with the National Tax Association. (The 25th annual conference was held in 1995.) The Business Journal was discontinued, replaced by a newsletter, a monograph series, and a reprint series.
That was the year the college started teaching graduate classes on-base at McConnell Air Force Base. It seems purely coincidence that the classes were held upstairs in the "Golden Cycle" urinalysis building, since a urinalysis was never made a prerequisite for either students or faculty. Many of the students were commanders at the Titan Missile facilities that ringed the city. Various faculty members and their wives were invited to tour the silos, which seemed eerily out of place: small enclaves of 25th century technology planted in the middle of grazing cows in the pastoral Kansas countryside. At some point after several years, the college dropped this program, and the Air Force officers looked to Webster College for their masters.
Fran Jabara announced that he would step down as dean to resume his role as a professor, and in January 1971 a faculty search committee was appointed to screen candidates for the job. Professor Martin Perline recalls what happened next: "In order to expedite the search, the chairman of the committee, Doug Sharp, called a meeting on a Sunday morning at his apartment. While the day started off with a few snow flurries, no one had any idea that Wichita was about to be hit with the now-famous 'blizzard of '71.' When the meeting ended, about noon, and the members of the committee went outside to drive home, it became obvious that it was impossible to drive anywhere and all seven or eight members were going to need to spend the night at Doug's apartment. Not only was there little room for sleeping; but since Doug was a bachelor and apparently rarely ate at home, the refrigerator contained only one pound of hot dogs, and a half gallon of ice cream. Fortunately, Kay Camin, a colleague in the college, lived down the street and was able to house and feed most of the committee. The following evening a flatbed truck was secured and most of the committee members were able to get home." Even then, they were fortunate, since the city was tied in knots for a week by the snowdrifts, which made the most out of a mere 13 inches of snowfall. There had been 18 inches of snow on March 16, 1970, but it didn't have nearly the effect of the blizzard the next year.
Continuing Maturation: The Most Recent Thirty Years
A candidate for dean couldn't be settled upon despite the good efforts of the committee, so Donald Christenson was moved up from associate dean to acting dean for the 1971-2 school year. Lawrence McKibbin was named dean in 1972, at which time Christenson again became the associate dean. (He nailed down his role as the academic equivalent of a "utility infielder" when in 1973 he became the "interim dean" of the College of Health-Related Professions.) This Christenson isn't to be confused with the Donald Christensen who has been a member of the FREDS faculty, and graduate coordinator, in recent years.
By 1972, various prestigious professorial "chairs" had been created. The R.P. Clinton Chair of Management and the Elmer Fox Chair of Accounting hadn't been filled yet (although the management chair was soon filled by Gerald Graham and the accounting chair by Ralph Estes). James Murphy occupied the Kansas Bankers Association Professorship in Banking, Randall Haydon held the Chair in Money and Banking sponsored by what was then the Fourth National Bank, and Fran Jabara was honored with the WSU Endowment Association Distinguished Professorship in Business Administration. These chairs fit well into the theme of "profusion."
The College of Business Administration (as it was then called) was in 1975 one of only 118 domestic schools of business having all of its programs - up through the master's level - accredited by the AACSB. The Real Estate and Land Use program was being started, with fund-raising for an endowed professorship. It came to be headed, successively, by professors Lynn Woodard and Donald Levi. Today, after a short hiatus following Levi's retirement, it is being revived by Stanley Longhofer. A college chapter of Rho Epsilon real estate fraternity was established, and for several years sponsored a major annual dinner with the real estate community, as well as scholarships and a number of seminars.
Also in 1975, the Legal Assistant program leading to an Associate of Science degree was approved by the Board of Regents (though the program didn't actually get underway until 1978). It has involved a major staff of adjunct faculty from the local legal profession. Professor Curtis Terflinger was its director for several years until his retirement (after 38 years at the University), at which time John Conlee took over that role (implemented very ably by Karen Demel).
It is a footnote to the history, but this was the year that a stir occurred about the sale of honorary business professorships to contributors as part of the effort to raise money for the Real Estate chair. The Sunflower reported that "Honorary Distinguished Professor" titles were awarded to a contributor of $10,000 or more," and that "Honorary Assistant Instructor" awards went to anyone who contributed $100 or less. (No doubt there were designations in between.) The faculty took offage, seeing an affront to its dignity and perhaps thinking the sale smacked too much of James Campbell's post-WSU escapades with doctoral diplomas, and forwarded its objections to President Ahlberg. The next issue of the Sunflower, on October 15, 1975, announced that the awarding of honorary academic titles was discontinued. The contributors apparently accepted the decision gracefully, and the college moved on quickly to other things, with no one wanting to draw too much attention to the incident.
The next year, 1976, marked the beginning of the Department of Accounting's sponsorship of the annual "Accounting Auditing Conference." The 25th such conference was held in May 2000, although by that time the Department of Accounting had been changed (as of 1981) to the School of Accountancy. Recently, the conference has been organized with the aid of the Center for Management Development, using the latter's expertise in hosting conferences.
That was the year Lawrence McKibbin stepped down as dean, going on to become the dean of the college of business at the University of Oklahoma in Norman and the co-author of a famous report on business education. In 2000-1, he is back as a Visiting Distinguished Professor of Management, attesting to the possibility that those who have been in Oklahoma would sooner be in Kansas.
Douglas Sharp followed McKibbin as dean, and had one of the longer tenures, serving until 1990. As always, those years were full of new developments. In 1979, in addition to the Legal Assistant program's getting started, the college got back into co-operative education. The School of Accountancy was established in 1981 and the undergraduate program in International Business was added. An ad hoc committee started studying the feasibility of an Executive MBA. College admission, probation, dismissal, and graduation standards were raised.
That was also the year the huge Department of Administration (which had grown to 34 faculty members) was divided into the three departments of FREDS (an acronym for Finance, Real Estate, and Decision Sciences), Management, and Marketing. The Business Law professors didn't insist that the convenient FREDS acronym be ruined by including either BL or L somewhere, although the omission came without any admission that Business Law is of less importance than the other components. Younger readers will want to note the willingness of the law professors humbly to stay out of the limelight; though little noticed at the time, it may have been a signal event in American history, marking the end of an era for the legal profession.
By 1981, there were 70 full-time faculty members, and 2,200 students, counting both graduate and undergraduate. Four master's degrees were offered, and the BBA itself had eleven emphases within it, which gave the students a wide range of choice. At the same time, the Business Education (what had been the Secretarial Training) program was dropped. The Center for Management Development offered 65 programs that year, with 5,000 enrollees. There was again an unfulfilled aspiration to start a doctoral program.
Also in 1981, the basketball scandal erupted through sensational disclosures in the Kansas City Times. President Ahlberg named two college of business professors, Martin Perline and Dwight Murphey, to serve on a three-man investigating committee, chaired by Vice President for Student Affairs James Rhatigan, for the University's own internal inquiry. A year later the NCAA found the former coach, Harry Miller, to have committed or allowed a number of rules violations, and the University's basketball program was placed on probation. The then-existing coach, Gene Smithson, however, was virtually if not entirely exonerated by the findings.
This caused some jubilation at the highest levels until Murphey wrote a letter to the Wichita Eagle letting it be known that he had filed an individual report with the President detailing why he had himself concluded that major violations were as much a part of the then-current coaching regime as of the former. A footnote is that Murphey's wife received an anonymous letter telling her that her husband would be killed. This resulted in the curtains' being kept closed around the Murphey household for several weeks. Nothing ever came of the threat.
Fran Jabara started the WSU chapter of ACE ("Association of Collegiate Entrepreneurs") in 1983. It remains active in 2001, providing students with interaction with a network of business firms, other ACE chapters around the world, and speakers on a variety of business subjects. It no longer is central to a national organization, though, for reasons we will see later here.
Until 1986, the faculty was central to the student-advising process. In fact, a new faculty member's first experience on campus was to be placed at a table on the floor of Henry Levitt Arena to advise students on their schedules. When the imperfections of this system became apparent, the Advising Center (now directed by Dianne Coleman) was established, replacing faculty with trained student advisors.
A major event occurred on May 4, 1988. The college was dedicated with a new name as the "W. Frank Barton School of Business," giving up its designation as the "College of Business Administration." Robert K. Jaedicke, dean of the graduate school of business at Stanford University, presented the dedicatory lecture; and Mr. Barton and his wife Patsy (herself a WSU alumna) unveiled the new building sign and a plaque. These things were done in honor of the $12 million gift made to the college by the Bartons in 1987.
The 1988 ceremony marked the beginning of a long period of University service by Frank Barton: he became a member of the WSU Endowment Association's board of governors; was appointed co-chairman, along with pizza entrepreneur Frank Carney, of the University's $100 million capital campaign called the "Commitment to Excellence"; and was appointed by Governor Mike Hayden to the WSU board of trustees. The University awarded him a Doctor of Humane Letters Honoris Causa at the May 1987 graduation ceremony.
Barton has been so central to the recent history of the School that a few biographical details are in order. It is surprising, in light of his later devotion to higher education, that he never attended college. He found it necessary to go directly to work during the Depression, which was in full swing when he graduated from high school. He became a store manager for Montgomery Ward and then for Western Auto before starting his own business, the Barton Distributing Company that dealt in appliances and consumer durables, in 1952. Tom Devlin worked for him and in the early 1970s proposed the idea of Rent-A-Center. Barton provided the seed money for the new idea, and he and Devlin started the new company in 1973. In 1987 they sold Rent-A-Center to Thorn EMI, a British firm, for $584 million, marking the culmination of one of the many Horatio Alger-like stories in Wichita's business history. Frank Barton died at age 83 in 2000.
Tom Devlin and his wife Myra gave $1 million to the University in 1988, resulting in the groundbreaking for Devlin Hall to house the Entrepreneurship program on November 4, 1988. The building, which we have noted is architecturally "postmodernist," stands just south of 21st Street. It was completed in 1989.
Douglas Sharp resumed his role as accounting professor in 1990. He later became director of the School of Accountancy, just as he had earlier been the chair of the accounting department. Again it proved necessary, as it had after Jabara, to have an interim dean for a year, and this role was filled by Billy Mac Jones.
Jones had joined the faculty in 1980 as the first holder of the Chair in Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management. Immediately before coming to WSU and filling that professorship, he served as president of Memphis State University. Before that, he had been president of Southwest Texas State University. Along the way and while he was at Wichita State, he wrote several biographies of prominent business personalities.
Malcolm Richards succeeded Jones after one year. Richards was dean for just two years. It was during this period that Fran Jabara's "greatest academic disappointment" occurred. The Center for Entrepreneurship at WSU had pioneered the formation nationally of ACE (American Collegiate Entrepreneurs). The national organization had held its first meeting in the college of business at M.I.T. When, however, the national group wasn't able to pay its bills for a conference held in New York City, Richards shut it down, despite the presence of approximately $200,000 of ACE money in the endowment fund. This was shortly before Richards left the deanship. ACE has continued at WSU as a local chapter.
He was replaced by Gerald Graham in 1993. During these years, the faculty continued to grow. We have seen how there were 70 full-time faculty in 1981. This became 77 by 1990 and more than 80 by 1992.
Nevertheless, the span of uninterrupted growth was broken, at least so far as the number of students was concerned, between 1990 to 1997. WSU's Academic Vice President had predicted a period of declining enrollment once the massive post-war "baby boom" generation finished college - and, sure enough, there was. Fewer students came out of high school, so WSU's and the Barton School's enrollments sagged. This caused no end of consternation, and much concern about "retention" of the students already enrolled. In part, the shortfall was compensated for by an increasing number of international students. Classes came to be filled to at least a significant degree by many of the brightest and hardest-working young people from around the world. A professor would find that one graduate assistant after another, for example, was from Malaysia, or India, or Indonesia, or Egypt. While all this occurred with the student body, the size of the faculty also dropped, so that by 1996-7 there were only 62 full-time faculty (compared to the 69 we have cited for 1981).
"Doing more with less" through "downsizing" was a theme throughout economic life at the turn of the millennium, reflecting both computerization and much sharper global competition. Even though student enrollment has increased since 1997, there is some possibility, as we go into the future, that the faculty will be streamlined, with fewer positions filled. The future, though, is hard to predict.
A major demographic change in the student body and faculty is marked by its internationalization. There are now many faculty from outside the country, although it is worth noting that in 1996 they were all Asian. Another change was in the number of women in student and faculty roles. Out of 85 enrolled in one section of "Law and Society" in the spring of 1970, 75 were men and 10 were women. In a small graduate section of the same course two years later, there were 11 men and one woman. Those proportions have changed radically during the ensuing years, so that female students now number half the student body, sometimes more. Women have come to occupy, too, an increasing number of faculty positions. Just in the four years between 1992 and 1996, the percentage of female business faculty increased from 30.9 to 38.7.
Not many of us know that Eastern Europe has a range of mountains that rival Wyoming's Grand Tetons. Visiting that range was one of the side-trips taken by Barton School faculty when a number of them became involved in a project in Slovakia in 1993-5. As part of the United States Information Agency's effort to help Slovakia make its transition out of Communism after the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, the USIA funded an effort to produce a business school curriculum at Comenius University in Bratislava. Four Slovak students came to study in the Barton School, and several Barton professors taught classes at Comenius. In 1994 the USIA increased the funding with a grant of $133,687 to allow seven Barton faculty members (Gerald Graham, John Belt, Phil Goodell, Ron Christy, Donald Christensen, Linda Christensen and Mark Dotzour) to teach seminars at Comenius starting in 1995. The Center for Management Development was the "project director," so Susan Cherches of the Center made at least one trip to Bratislava for the logistical planning.
A future generation will want to remember that a time capsule was sealed on April 13, 1995, and entombed within a wall in Clinton Hall's main lobby. Among other things, it contains the mission and vision statements, information about business majors, and sample exams.
The Barton School took a major leap into the "Computer Age" in 1996 when the Koch Computer Classroom was dedicated in Clinton Hall, sporting 41 computers. Electronic technology is moving so fast that the more recent history of the college has seen a major preoccupation with upgrading both equipment and skills. Faculty members have begun using Web homepages for their courses, putting syllabi, lecture notes and assignments on them. "PowerPoint" presentations have begun to replace blackboard or "overhead transparency" lectures. And e-mail has come into widespread use between faculty and students. Faculty throughout the University and academia in general are working to put entire courses and even degree programs on the Internet for "distance learning."
A major event in that same year was the dedication of "Jabara Hall," named after professor and former-dean Fran Jabara. The building houses the mathematics and science programs, and lies a few yards directly north of Clinton Hall. Dean Jabara took a year's sabbatical after he left the deanship in 1971, and then returned to teach from 1972 through 1977, at which time he established the "Center for Entrepreneurship" and became its director. He carried that program at his own financial sacrifice for 12 years, aided by the enormous success of the summer workshop "Your Future in Business." (One hundred students were anticipated the first time it was offered - but there turned out to be 338. The Center could keep the earnings for its own use, which made up in part for the lack of budgeted funds).
The relationship during that period between Jabara and certain administrators is best left undescribed (although this is said with no innuendoes intended in anyone's direction), but we can note that Jabara retired from the University in 1989 after 40 years of service. President Eugene Hughes decided to reweave the tattered fabric in 1986. Fran and Geri Jabara are pictured on a plaque inside Jabara hall. In 1999, the annual $20,000 "Fran Jabara Scholarship in Entrepreneurship" got underway. Merritt Gaunt, son of Philip Gaunt, then director of the Elliott School of Communications, was the first winner. (In fact, he was awarded a total of $50,000 in what are called "stacked" scholarships.)
The Executive MBA's first cohort started through its program in the fall of 1997, and graduated 19 students in 1999. A Certified Financial Planner program was begun that involved weekend classes lasting a year. A partnership was worked out with the K.U. Law School for exchanges between the law school and the WSU Entrepreneurship program. That same year, Michael Burgoon, who had won the Outstanding Senior award in 1967 and went on to help found the national newspaper USA Today, was the featured speaker at WSU's annual Honors Convocation.
The themes of "profusion" and "cutting edge" are well illustrated by events in 1998. The Management Information Systems degree was offered for the first time; by 2000-1, the program had three faculty, with candidates interviewing for another position. A joint venture was entered into with the Beijing Institute of Technology and the China Agricultural University that would allow Chinese students to take the second year of their MBA in the Barton School. Moreover, a Certificate of Management program was begun as a joint venture with Boeing Aircraft, involving four 8-week management classes.
Gerald Graham announced his retirement as dean for mid-1999, but when the search process didn't produce a new dean, he agreed to remain in that position for another year.
The following year's search was successful, leading to the hiring of John Beehler, who stepped in at mid-summer, 2000. Beehler is a CPA and while at the University of Texas at Arlington was the chair of their accounting department, their associate dean, and the president of the university-wide faculty senate. He is clearly a "people person," having learned the names and much about each faculty member even before he arrived. In this, he is fully within the spirit of the presidency of Donald Beggs, since Beggs and his wife Shirley have given campus relationships a "human touch" beyond anything experienced before in the modern history of the University. Beehler's goals include enhancing the Barton School's physical plant, perhaps by adding floors to Clinton Hall, and he gives high priority to immersing the college in computer technology.
In the fall of 2000, the School began offering an "e-business" (i.e., electronic business) emphasis that relates to the use of computer-mediated networks to conduct business. For the first time, the School of Accountancy received separate accreditation from the AACSB.
All of academia stands at the cusp of the computer age. There is now considerable speculation, pro and con, in a growing literature about the future of all "brick and mortar" institutions, from retailing to higher education. Overwhelmingly, the mood is optimistic as people gear up to participate in the changes, which they see as constructive and as something that offers them opportunity. There will inevitably be a whirlwind of "creative destruction," however, when Internet courses and even degree programs are offered in large numbers and at low cost. It is hard to know what impact that will have on existing institutions, including WSU and the Barton School.
Before this history is concluded, a word should be said about perspective. What we have traced is largely the history in an institutional sense, noting the college's growth and the proliferation of its activities. This has largely been the history of what we might call the "exoskeleton" of the college. For each of the things we have mentioned, there is a human story, as each item has been carried out by people for whom it has had particular meaning. There is also an "intellectual" aspect of university life that a bare-bones telling misses. Commitment to a faculty position in higher education has long been seen as largely a commitment to a "life of the mind." While all of the events told here have been occurring, there has also been, largely unseen, tremendous intellectual excitement within the lives of particular faculty members.
What comes to mind is Robert Louis Stevenson's story "The Lantern Bearers," in which he told about boys who carried lights hidden under their cloaks as they walked to a meeting-place on the Thames for conversation and camaraderie. With their lights totally covered, the boys were "pillars of darkness in the dark." Even though they were unnoticed by anyone they passed on the street, the experience was full of meaning for the boys themselves.
A life of scholarship is often that way. A professor can feel great intellectual excitement without anyone knowing it. If the resulting contributions are of real value, those contributions may over time emerge as the more important facts about the history of a college or university. Someone a century from now writing the history of these first 75 years may find reason to give more attention to such intellectual products than to facts about growth and profusion. As time goes on, additional Barton School professors may place their collected writings in the Archives of the University. Those who have already done so are Jimmy Skaggs and Dwight Murphey.
The same is true about the contributions of alumni. The Barton School has sought out many of the leading achievers among its former graduates and invited them to return as speakers and guests. This hints at the significance of what is in effect a vast diaspora. Without question, there are a great many human stories, some small and some major, to be told about the graduates, who are spread over the world.
We have finished the chronology, such as we have been able to glean it from the College's office records and the Archives, but other details are needed to round out the picture. The Appendices will tell about the Barton School's student groups, the various Centers, and the names of students and faculty who have received the many awards granted over the years.
Appendix 1: The Student Groups
Each of the student groups active today is represented on the Dean's Student Advisory Council, which, among other things, organizes the annual spring festival, the "Back to Business Bash." Several of them have been mentioned in the history just given, and we won't repeat details given there. Here are the student groups in 2000-1:
The Association of Collegiate Entrepreneurs (ACE). After its beginning at WSU, this has now spread into an international organization. WSU continues to have an active local chapter.
Alpha Kappa Psi. At one time, it was a male fraternity, but it has now been co-ed for several years.
The American Marketing Association (AMA). The chapter is a joint effort of students from the Barton School, Friends University and Newman University, who make up the "Tri-Collegiate Chapter."
Beta Alpha Psi. The Barton School has a very active chapter of this national honorary accounting society, which is also a professional fraternity giving students on-going contact with accountants outside the University. The Barton School's "Tau Epsilon" chapter has won the "superior chapter" award each year since it was founded in 1979.
Delta Sigma Pi. This is an international professional co-ed business fraternity, in many ways similar to Alpha Kappa Psi.
The International Business Students Association (IBSA; at one time the AIESEC). This centers on the globalization of business. It works closely with the World Trade Council.
The Legal Assistant Society (LAS). As its name suggests, it is the student group connected with the Legal Assistant program.
The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). This was founded in 1972 with the encouragement of the downtown chapter of the American Society of Personnel Administration. John Belt was for many years the faculty advisor. A source of pride for the chapter is that a Barton School student has won the Society's national competition for "Outstanding Student" a record seven times. The winners have been: 1974, Nancy Mason (now Bereman), who is presently the associate dean of the college; 1975, Jerry Parrott; 1977, Diane Friedberg; 1978, Pete Holden; 1982, Theresa Weber; 1986, Carol Harrison; and 1995, Ann Wortman. In 1988, Carol McCormick-Christensen won the "Outstanding Thesis Award."
The Student Association for the MBA (SAMBA). This provides a student group to supplement the MBA program.
Students in Free Enterprise (SIFE). Committed to education in free enterprise, SIFE is open to all majors and has no membership fees. The chapter competes in annual regional and international competitions. In 1999 its team ranked in the "Sweet 16" out of 800 chapters worldwide. It is supported by the Wichita Downtown Rotary Club.
To these, mention should be added of Beta Gamma Sigma, the top national honorary society for the top percentiles of students in the junior, senior and graduate classes in business and management. Its initiation is held each spring immediately before the annual Barton School banquet, which the chapter sponsors.
We have seen how the Rho Epsilon real estate fraternity was once extremely active. Stan Longhofer, holder of the chair in real estate, plans either to reactivate Rho Epsilon or start another student group for students in real estate.
Appendix 2: The Centers
Much creative activity within the college has been conducted through several "centers." Again, we will try not to repeat details already told in the history:
Center for Economic Development and Business Research (CEDBR). Established in 1968 as the "Center for Business and Economic Research," the CEDBR is an approved federal census tape processing center and a designated user group of the Bureau of Economic Analysis with the U.S. Department of Commerce. Since 1980, it has co-sponsored (with Prudential Securities and the Wichita Area Chamber of Commerce) the annual Business and Economic Outlook Conference. Its special studies over the years have included one into the economic consequences of making the Arkansas River a navigable canal from Tulsa to Wichita, and another that provided an input-outlook analysis of Sedgwick County.
Center for Economic Education. This is affiliated with the Kansas Council on Economic Education, which has had its state office and regional center in the Barton School. It conducts workshops for secondary school teachers, and programming with the public schools, to promote economic literacy.
Center for Entrepreneurship. This is a major component of the college, about which much has been said in the history. It conducts the FastTrac II program for outreach to minority- and women-owned businesses, and the Kansas Family Business Forum to help family-owned businesses survive. Its summer freshman-level workshop, "Your Future in Business," had more than 3500 students by its 20th anniversary in 1997. The Center holds an annual "Explore Entrepreneurship" conference for high school students from throughout Kansas. It has published a "baker's dozen" of books in its "Business Heritage Series" about Kansas businesses and business personalities, the most recent about the Star Lumber & Supply Co. In 1993, the Center began a "Metro Awards" series to recognize the fastest-growing privately held companies in the greater Wichita area. We have told about the recently created Rudd Family Entrepreneurial Fund that provides venture capital to selected student efforts to start new businesses.
The Center sponsors the annual Entrepreneurs-in-Residence lecture series (also called Executives-in-Residence). An Appendix here will list the speakers, but it is worthwhile to know more than just the names. The speakers have included, among others, Mack Worden, the vice-president of the Marketing Division of General Motors; Earl F. Cross, the CEO of Great Western Sugar; Leslie Warner, the CEO of General Telephone and Electronics Corp.; J. R. Simplot, producer of the first commercially-produced french fry; True Knowles, president of Dr. Pepper Co. (and a 1960s WSU graduate); T. Michael Young, CEO and Hi/Lo Automotive in Houston (and a 1967 WSU accounting graduate); Charles Koch, CEO of Koch Industries, Inc.; Stan Brannan, founder of Brite Voice Systems (also an alumnus); and Marcia Meyers, president of PETsMART International Supply Co. Although several of these have been alumni of the college, a "Distinguished Alumnus in Residence" series was begun in 1997. It is worth mentioning that Dan Carney, of Pizza Hut fame, is an alumnus of the college of business, as is Jim Mann, who went on to lead a major computer company.
Center for Human Appraisal. Established as the Center for Human Appraisal and Communications Research in 1968, this Center carried on Art Sweney's behavioral science research until his retirement. Its largest project was perhaps its 2-year study of personnel retention and of management styles for the U.S. Air Force. Research projects were also done for Central State Bank, The Coleman Company, Beech Aircraft, Cessna Military, General Electric, the Hesston Corporation, and Skelly Refinery.
Center for International Business Advancement. Established in 1996, this participates with the World Trade Council to foster world trade.
Center for Management and Human Resource Development. No longer affiliated with the Barton School, this Center was once the business administration and social science arm of the National Institute for Aviation Research.
Center for Management Development. We have told much about this in the history, since it and its predecessor have been active since 1962. In 2001, under the directorship of Susan Cherches, it is offering 59 professional development seminars. The CMD Training Center is located at the Wichita Boathouse, just south of the Hyatt Regency Hotel on the Arkansas River. Certificate programs, requiring 54 hours of instruction, are offered in four areas: Leadership or Management; Training; Office Administration; and Non-Profit Management. There is also a certificate program in Supervision.
Small Business Development Center. No longer mentioned in the college's 1996-7 self-evaluation report, this Center at one time worked with small businesses to provide free consultation in management and technical matters. It was part of a network of centers at seven other Kansas universities and colleges. The state headquarters were at one time in Clinton Hall.
World Trade Council of Wichita (formerly the World Trade Club, organized in 1975 by Professor Lee Nehrt). Dharma deSilva has been the chair since 1980. It is affiliated with the Barton School's International Business program and with the Wichita Area Chamber of Commerce.
Appendix 3: Awards to Students
The Frank A. Neff Memorial Award for Outstanding Junior
1962 William T. Carnahan
1963 James L. Ireland
1964 Donald E. Copenhaver
1965 Janice Bish Perry
1966 Kendall E. Bert
1967 Steven Overstreet
1968 Elaine J. Strouse
1969 Robert H. Gutschenritter
1970 Diana L. White
1971 Joyce A. Schafer
1972 Stephen Dale Zillinger
1973 David L. Nelson
1974 Richard E. Thode
1975 Alex C. Johnson
1976 Michael Hein
1977 Edith R. Penner
1978 Jannett K. Highfill
1978 Antone G. Sites
1979 James M. Conrad
1979 Janet K. Turkle
1980 Teresa C. Weber
1980 Jose C. Peggs
1983 Bill Partridge, Jr.
1983 Alice K. Way
1988 Trisha Jay Grosch
1989 Mei Wan Soo-Tho
1989 Patrick L. Reed
1990 Michael J. Fischer
1990 Stephen W. Smith
1991 Jacquelyn J. Kane
1992 Jacquelyn J. Kane
1993 Kirsi B. Porter
1994 Brenda Joyce Sandlin
1995 Jason B. Ficken
1996 Robin R. Matz
1997 Jason W. Mauch
1998 Salomon Melgarejo-Lopez
1999 Jennifer R. Morrow
2000 Daniel A. Nickel
Frank A. Neff Memorial Award for Outstanding Senior
1963 William T. Carnahan
1964 James J. Bedinger
1965 Donald E. Copenhaver
1966 Benjamin V. Anzola
1967 H. Michael Burgoon
1968 Kendall E. Bert
1969 E. Lynn Matthews
1970 David D. Mitchell
1971 Diana L. White
1972 Charles R. Long
1973 Byron L. Welliver
1974 Clinton R. Koker
1975 Sandra Haysinger
1976 Douglas L. Yoder
1977 Patricia R. Black
1978 Peter B. Holden
1979 Roberta M. Warren
1980 Kurt W. Huffman
1983 Patricia Ann Stoffel
1988 Tim P. Butler
1988 Peggy Ann Bergmeier
1989 Vicki D. Linnebur
1990 Mai Wan Janey Soo-Tho
1991 Paul J. Guffrovich
1992 Leigh Ann Howarth
1993 Stephanie D. Seymour
1994 Erika E. Plagge
1995 Dana L. Goldberg Silverman
1996 David M. Synstegard
1997 Jason B. Ficken
1998 Arlene M. Schreiber
1999 Elizabeth Ann Hammel
2000 Steven G. Armour
Clay Barton Scholarship
1991 Erika E. Plagge
1992 Gregory L. Richards
1993 LaTisha R. Garner
1994 Joseph John Wawrzaszek, Jr.
1995 Joseph R. Hand
1996 Collin G. Stieben
1997 Jennifer R. Morrow
1998 Amanda R. Nelson
1999 Mary Rachel Hattrup
2000 Tiffany N. Pankratz
2001 Kristen Munday
William A. Swett Prize for Efficiency
1995 Dmitri Glebovich Axenov
1997 Sean P. Corcoran
2000 Jennie L. Hooper
AWARDS TO FACULTY
Regents Award for Excellence in Teaching
1969 Martin M. Perline
1978 Donald W. Hackett
1979 Phillip T. May
1980 Gerald H. Graham
1982 Robert H. Ross
1984 John A. Belt
1986 Janet L. Wolcutt
1990 Bill D. Jarnagin
1994 Dorothy E. Ranson
1995 Esther L. Headley
1998 Dianne C. Coleman
1999 Stephen S. Porter
2000 Mohammad Dadashzadeh
Young Faculty Scholar Award
1993 Mark G. Dotzour
1996 Manoj Gupta
2000 Sue Abdinnour-Helm
2001 Jeffry J. Bryant
Board of Trustees' Award for Leadership in the Advancement of Teaching
1994 Nancy A. Bereman
1995 James E. Clark
1997 Mohammad Dadashzadeh
Academy of Effective Teaching Award
1996 John A. Belt
1996 Bill D. Jarnagin
1997 Martin M. Perline
W. Frank Barton School of Business Instructor of the Year
1984 Esther L. Headley
1984 M. Hossein Safizadeh
1985 Frederic B. Kraft
1985 Janet L. Wolcutt
1986 Barbara K. Parrish
1986 Robert H. Ross
1987 Ivan E. Brown, Jr.
1987 Martin M. Perline
1988 Bill B. Jarnagin
1988 Gerald S. McDougall
1989 Gerald H. Grahm
1989 Dorothy E. Ranson
1990 Mark G. Dotzour
1990 Timothy W. Nohr
1991 Donald R. Levi
1991 Phillip T. May
1992 Richard L. B. LeCompte
1992 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1993 Bill D. Jarnagin
1993 Dorothy E. Ranson
1994 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1995 Ronald L. Christy
1995 Rebecca Waller Stephan
1996 Cindy Claycomb
1996 Cheri G. Etling
1997 John A. Belt
1997 James A. Wolff
1998 Jen-Chi Cheng
1998 Lawrence W. Inks
1999 Mohammad Dadashzadeh
1999 Janet L. Wolcutt
2000 Dean E. Headley
2000 Timothy L. Pett
W. Frank Barton School of Business Researcher/Writer of the Year
1984 Frederic B. Kraft
1984 Dwight D. Murphey
1984 Robert H. Ross
1985 Gerald S. McDougall
1985 M. Hossein Safizadeh
1986 Dong W. Cho
1986 Gerald H. Graham
1986 Jinoos H. Hosseini
1987 John A. Belt
1987 Nancy A. Bereman
1987 David M. Kemme
1987 Jimmy M. Skaggs
1988 Kae H. Chung
1988 Kamal Fatehi-Sedeh
1988 Philip L. Hersch
1988 Gerald S. McDougall
1988 M. Hossein Safizadeh
1989 Kae H. Chung
1989 Mark G. Dotzour
1989 Bill D. Jarnagin
1989 Awanti P. Sethi
1990 Donald G. Christenson
1990 Richard L. B. LeCompte
1990 Phillip T. May
1991 Mark G. Dotzour
1991 Manoj Gupta
1991 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1991 Mark L. Lengnick-Hall
1992 Gerald S. McDougall
1992 Philip L. Hersch
1992 Linda F. Christensen
1992 Donald G. Christensen
1992 Jimmy M. Skaggs
1993 Martha M. Sanders
1993 Manoj Gupta
1993 Michael F. Foran
1994 Jimmy M. Skaggs
1995 Philip L. Hersch
1995 Charles L. Martin
1996 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1996 Mark L. Lengnick-Hall
1997 Linda F. Christensen
1997 Dwight D. Murphey
1998 Charles L. Martin
1998 Phillip T. May
1999 Sue Abdinnour-Helm
1999 Jeffrey J. Bryant
2000 Cindy A. Claycomb
2000 Steven M. Farmer
W. Frank Barton School of Business Research Grant Awards
1993 Donald G. Christensen
1993 Mark G. Dotzour
1993 Dean E. Headley
1993 George F. Heinrich
1993 Richard L. B. LeCompte
1994 Donald G. Christensen
1994 Manoj Gupta
1994 Richard L. B. LeCompte
1994 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1994 Mark L. Lengnick-Hall
1995 Donald G. Christensen
1995 Richard L. B. LeCompte
1995 Charles L. Martin
1995 Phillip T. May
1996 Manoj Gupta
1997 Frederic B. Kraft
1996 Richard L. B. LeCompte
1996 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1997 Donald G. Christensen
1997 Cindy Claycomb
1997 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1997 Mark L. Lengnick-Hall
1997 Qing Li
1997 Stephen S. Porter
1998 Cindy Claycomb
1998 Lawrence W. Inks
1998 Richard L. B. LeCompte
1998 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1998 Mark A. Lengnick-Hall
1998 Charles L. Martin
1999 Linda F. Christensen
1999 Cindy A. Claycomb
1999 Bill D. Jarnagin
1999 Qing Li
1999 Charles L. Martin
1999 James A. Wolff
2000 Sue Abdinnour-Helm
2000 Ta-Tao Chuang
2000 Cindy A. Claycomb
2000 Steven A. Harrast
2000 Kyung So Im
2000 Frederic B. Kraft
2000 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
2000 Charles L. Martin
2000 Timothy L. Pett
2000 Stephen S. Porter
2000 James A. Wolff
1991-4 Mark G. Dotzour
1991-4 David M. Kemme
1994-6 Dean E. Headley
1994-6 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1996-8 Manoj Gupta
1996-8 Philip L. Hersch
1996-8 Richard L. B. LeCompte
1998-9 Mohammad Dadashzadeh
1998-00 Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
1998-00 Mark L. Lengnick-Hall
1998-00 Charles L. Martin
2000-02 Jeffrey L. Bryant
2000-02 Philip L. Hersch
2000-02 Dean E. Headley
Special Recognition Award for Scholarly Activity that Increased the External Visibility of the W. Frank Barton School
1992 Brent D. Bowen
1992 Dean E. Headley
United States Business and Industrial Council Educational Foundation "American Values" Award
1997 Dwight D. Murphey
Appendix 5: Honored Speakers
Executive in Residence Series
1974 James H. Wille, President, KFC Corporation
1975 G. Gregor Linde, President, Southern Pacific Land Co.
1979 Carl J. Ally, Chairman and CEO, Ally & Gorgan, Inc.
1981 William Douce, Chairman, Phillips Petroleum
1982 George Ferrell, President, Mellon Bank
1983 William Coors, Chairman of the Board, Adolph Coors Company
1984 Donald E. Nickerson, President, Paine Webber
1985 Donald P. Kelley, Chairman, Esmark, Inc.
1986 Robert T. Campion, Chairman, Lear Siegler, Inc.
1987 D. Wayne Calloway, Chairman and CEO, PepsiCo
1988 Larry Horner, Chairman and CEO, Peat Marwick Main & Co.
1989 Thomas L. Phillips, Chairman and CEO, Raytheon Company
1990 James K. Batten, Chairman and CEO, Knight-Ridder
1991 James R. Paul, CEO, Coastal Corporation
1992 Michael J. Ferris, President, Vulcan Chemicals Division
1994 True H. Knowles, President and COO, Dr. Pepper Company
1998 Marcia R. Meyer, President, PETsMART International
Entrepreneur in Residence Series
1978 Frank Carney, Co-Founder, Pizza Hut
1980 Fred Smith, Founder and CEO, Federal Express
1982 R. David Thomas, Founder and Chairman, Wendy's
1983 Ted Turner, Chairman and President, Turner Broadcasting Systems
1984 K. Phillip Hwang, Chairman, TeleVideo Systems
1985 T. Boone Pickens, Chairman and President, Mesa Petroleum Company
1986 Arthur Lipper, III, Chairman, Venture Magazine
1987 Royal Little, Founder, Textron, Inc.
1988 J. R. Simplot, Founder and Chairman, J. R. Simplot Company
1989 Dr. Howard Stevenson, Harvard University
1990 Alan Ashton, Co-Founder, Wordperfect Corporation
1991 James L. Mann, CEO, SunGuard Data Systems
1995 T. Michael Young, Chairman, Prsident and CEO, Hi/Lo Automotive
1996 Charles G. Koch, Chairman and CEO, Koch Industries
1997 Stan Brannan, Chairman of the Board, Brite Voice Systems
Keynote Speakers at annual "Business Week"
2001 Jim Ziegler, Vice President and General Manager, Learjet
A NOTE OF APPRECIATION: Several members of the University community have helped in the compilation of this history, and each of them deserves the author's appreciation. Special thanks should be expressed, in addition, to two individuals: One is George Platt, who has shared so generously the products of his continued love for the history and lore of the University. The other is Dean Fran Jabara, who helped immeasurably, giving a long interview capped by later assistance with a number of details. The responsibility for this account is not theirs, but much that is valuable in it is.